Things You Don’t Know About Covid-19 Quarantine
In this article, we’ll be teaching you what you don’t know about Quarantine. Given the fact that there has been the mention of the word “Quarantine” all over the world due to the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, but not everyone knows what quarantine really means. So that’s why we deemed it necessary to prepare this article in order to tell you what you need to know about quarantine. At first, we ask ourselves, what is quarantine? It is simply a restriction on the movement of people and goods which is intended to prevent the spread of disease or pests. It is often used in connection to disease and illness, preventing the movement of those who may have been exposed to a communicable disease, but do not have a confirmed medical diagnosis. This article will highlight for you things you should know about Quarantine.
What you should know about Quarantine law is that it began in Colonial America in 1663, when in an attempt to curb an outbreak of smallpox, the city of New York established a quarantine. In the 1730s, the city built a quarantine station on Bedloe’s Island. The Philadelphia Lazaretto was the first quarantine hospital in the United States, built-in 1799, in Tinicum Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania. There are similar national landmarks such as Swinburne Island and Angel Island. The Pest House in Concord, Massachusetts was used as early as 1752 to quarantine those suffering from cholera, tuberculosis, and smallpox.
The word quarantine comes from quarantine, meaning “forty days”, used in the 14th–15th-centuries Venetian language and designating the period that all ships were required to be isolated before passengers and crew could go ashore during the Black Death plague epidemic; it followed the Trentino, or thirty-day isolation period, first imposed in 1347 in the Republic of Ragusa, Dalmatia (modern Dubrovnik in Croatia). Quarantine is quite different from medical isolation. Isolation is the prospect in which those confirmed to be infected with a communicable disease are isolated from the healthy population. Quarantine considerations are often one aspect of border control. Now read further below in order to still know about quarantine.
All You Need to Know About Quarantine
The Department of Health and Human Services is responsible for quarantine decisions, specifically the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Global Migration and Quarantine.
We’ll be giving you the key facts which you need to know about quarantine below:
- Ethical and practical considerations need to be considered when applying quarantine to people. Practice differs from country to country. In some countries, quarantine is just one of many measures governed by legislation relating to the broader concept of biosecurity; for example, Australian biosecurity is governed by the single overarching Biosecurity Act 2015.
- Epidemics of yellow fever ravaged urban communities in North America throughout the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, the best-known examples being the 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic and outbreaks in Georgia and Florida (1888).
- Cholera and smallpox epidemics continued throughout the nineteenth century, and plague epidemics affected Honolulu and San Francisco from 1899 until 1901.
- During the 1918 influenza pandemic, some communities instituted protective sequestration (sometimes referred to as “reverse quarantine”) to keep infected from introducing influenza into healthy populations.
- Most Western countries implemented a range of containment strategies, including isolation, surveillance, and the closure of schools, churches, theatres, and public events.
- People suspected of carrying infectious diseases have been quarantined, as in the cases of Andrew Speaker (multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, 2007) and Kaci Hickox (Ebola, 2014). This was already the case since the late 20th century.
- During the 1957–58 influenza pandemic and the 1968 flu pandemic, several countries implemented measures to control the spread of the disease. In addition, the World Health Organization applied a global influenza surveillance network.
- In the SARS epidemic, thousands of Chinese people were quarantined and checkpoints to take temperatures were set up.
- Moving infected patients to isolation wards and home-based self-quarantine of people potentially exposed was the main way the Western African Ebola virus epidemic was ended in 2016; members of the 8th WHO Emergency Committee criticized international travel restrictions imposed during the epidemic as ineffective due to difficulty of enforcement, and counterproductive as they slowed down aid efforts.
- The People’s Republic of China has employed mass quarantines – firstly of the city of Wuhan and subsequently of all of Hubei province (population 55.5 million) – in the COVID-19 pandemic. After a few weeks, the Italian government imposed lockdowns in all the countries (more than 60 million people) to stop the coronavirus pandemic.
- During the COVID-19 pandemic, India quarantined itself from the world for a period of one month.
- Most governments around the world restricted or advised against all non-essential travel to and from countries and areas affected by the outbreak. The virus has already spread within communities in large parts of the world, with many not knowing where or how they were infected.
- The quarantining of people often raises questions of civil rights, especially in cases of long confinement or segregation from society, such as that of Mary Mallon (also known as Typhoid Mary), a typhoid fever carrier who was arrested and quarantined in 1907 and later spent the last 23 years and 7 months of her life in medical isolation at Riverside Hospital on North Brother Island.
- The quarantine can have negative psychological effects on those that are quarantined. These include post-traumatic stress, confusion, and anger.
- According to a “Rapid Review” published in The Lancet in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, “Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects.
- In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide a clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favorable.”
- Quarantine periods can be very short, such as in the case of a suspected anthrax attack, in which people are allowed to leave as soon as they shed their potentially contaminated garments and undergo a decontamination shower. For example, an article entitled “Daily News workers quarantined” describes a brief quarantine that lasted until people could be showered in a decontamination tent.
- The purpose of such quarantine-for-decontamination is to prevent the spread of contamination and to contain the contamination such that others are not put at risk from a person fleeing a scene where contamination is suspect. It can also be used to limit exposure, as well as eliminate a vector.
- New developments for quarantine include new concepts in quarantine vehicles such as the ambulance bus, mobile hospitals, and lockdown/evacuation (inverse evacuation) procedures, as well as docking stations for an ambulance bus to dock to a facility under lockdown.
- During the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple governmental actors enacted quarantines in an effort to curb the rapid spread of the virus.
- On 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown, which increased to 2.6 billion people two days later—around a third of the world’s population.
Quarantine in Different Countries
Self-quarantine (or self-isolation) is a popular term that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic, which spread to most countries in 2020. Citizens able to do so we’re encouraged to stay home to curb the spread of the disease.
- In Hubei, the origin of the epidemic, a cordon sanitaire was imposed on Wuhan and other major cities in China, affecting around 500 million people, which is unprecedented in scale in human history, to limit the rate of spread of the disease. The ‘lockdown’ of Wuhan, and subsequently a wider-scale ‘lockdown’ throughout Hubei province, began on 23 January 2020. At this stage, the spread of the virus in mainland China was running at approximately 50% growth in cases per day.
- As the outbreak spread there, beginning 22 February 2020, a cordon sanitaire was imposed on a group of at least 10 different municipalities in Northern Italy, effectively quarantining more than 50,000 people. This followed a second day when the declared detected cases leaped enormously (the period from 21 to 23 February saw daily increases of 567%, 295%, and 90% respectively). A week later the rate of increase of cases in Italy was significantly reduced (the period from 29 February to 4 March saw daily increases of 27%, 50%, 20%, 23%, and 23%).
- On 8 March 2020, a much wider region of Northern Italy was placed under quarantine restrictions, involving around 16 million people. On the next day, the quarantine was extended to the whole of Italy, effective on 10 March 2020, placing roughly 60 million people under quarantine. Lockdown was extended until 3 May, although starting from 14 April stationery shops, bookshops and children clothing’s shops were allowed to open.
- On 26 April, the so-called “Phase 2” was announced, to start from 4 May. Movements across regions were still forbidden, while movements between municipalities were allowed only to visit relatives or for work and health reasons. Moreover, closed factories could re-open, but schools, bars, restaurants, and barbers were still closed.
- As cases of the virus spread to and took hold in more European countries, many followed the earlier examples of China and Italy and began instituting policies of lockdown. Notable among these were Ireland (where schools have been closed for the rest of March and limits set on sizes of meetings), Spain (where a lockdown was announced on 14 March), Czech Republic, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Poland, Turkey, and France, while the United Kingdom noticeably lagged behind in adopting such measures. As of 18 March, more than 250 million people are in lockdown across Europe.
- In the immediate context of the start of the pandemic in Wuhan, countries neighboring or close to China adopted a cautious approach. For example, Sri Lanka, Macau, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Japan, and South Korea had all imposed some degree of lockdown by 19 February.
- As countries across the world reported escalating case numbers and deaths, more and more countries began to announce travel restrictions and lockdowns.
- Africa and Latin America were relatively delayed in the spread of the virus, but even on these continents, countries began to impose travel bans and lockdowns.
- Brazil and Mexico began lockdowns in late February and much of the rest of Latin America followed suit in early March.
- Much of Africa was on lockdown by the start of April. Kenya, for example, blocked certain international flights and subsequently placed a ban on ‘global’ meetings.
- As of 1 April, more than 280 million people, or about 86% of the population, are under some form of lockdown in the United States, 59 million people are in lockdown in South Africa, and 1.3 billion people are in lockdown in India.